## Multiplication Stories

Students create multiplication stories where one factor is 6 or 7, and play a multiplication game to help them master their multiplication facts.

Call the class together and ask a volunteer to write one multiplication sentence on the board; for example, 6 × 2 = 12. Ask the class if they can think up a story that would fit this multiplication sentence.

One possible story is:

Each child is wearing 2 mittens. There are 6 children. How many mittens are there?

As inspiration for this activity, you could play the song *7's Tall Tales*. In the lyrics for this song, there is a silly story for each multiplication fact from 7 × 1 through 7 × 10, such as:

7 times 2…14 pandas in a canoe.

Special thanks to Kat Vellos for allowing us to use this song on Illuminations. The song *7's Tall Tales* and other songs about multiplication facts are available on the CD *Musiplication*.

After they have had time to write their stories, call on several children to share them with the class. If the students wish, they might illustrate their multiplication stories and place them on a bulletin board. Repeat with other multiplication sentences from the 6 table.

Point to the calendar and ask how many days there are in 2 weeks, then what multiplication sentence that would suggest (2 × 7 = 14). Write it on the board. Repeat with 3 weeks. Next, invite a student to enclose 4 weeks on the calendar with his or her hands and ask how many days there are in 4 weeks. Ask someone else in the class to record 4 × 7 = 28 on the board. Ask the students to write a different problem for each number sentence. After they have had time to work, encourage several students to share their problems with the class.

To continue the lesson, ask a volunteer to open the Adjustable Spinner. Increase the number of sectors to eleven. Have the student click on names of each section to assign the numbers 0–10 to the spinner regions. Invite a student to activate the spinner and to name the product of the number spun times 6. (For example, if a 5 is spun, the student should answer 30.) Play the game again using 7 as a factor.

For extra practice, the game could also be played in reverse. Number the sections of the spinner with the multiples of 6 or with the multiples of 7. For instance, you could use the following set:

6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 42, 48, 54, 60

For students just beginning to learn their multiplication facts, number the sections of the spinner sequentially. For students who might benefit from advanced practice, you could number the sections in random order, and you could use multiples of both 6 and 7, as shown below:

To play the game, have a student activate the spinner. For each spin, have a student give the multiplication fact associated with chosen number. For instance, if the spinner lands on 24, the student would be expected to give the answer 6 × 4 (or 4 × 6).

Call the class together and ask a volunteer to write one multiplication sentence on the board; for example, 6 × 2 = 12. Ask the class if they can think up a story that would fit this multiplication sentence.

One possible story is:

Each child is wearing 2 mittens. There are 6 children. How many mittens are there?

After they have had time to write their stories, call on several children to share them with the class. If the students wish, they might illustrate their multiplication stories and place them on a bulletin board. Repeat with other multiplication sentences from the 6 table.

Point to the calendar and ask how many days there are in 2 weeks, then what multiplication sentence that would suggest. (2 × 7 = 14) Write it on the board. Repeat with 3 weeks. Next, invite a student to enclose 4 weeks on the calendar with his or her hands and ask how many days there are in 4 weeks. Ask someone else in the class to record 4 × 7 = 28 on the board. Ask the students to write a different problem for each number sentence. After they have had time to work, encourage several students to share their problems with the class.

To continue the lesson, ask a volunteer to open the Adjustable Spinner. Have that student number the spinner sections from 0 to 10 and call on friends to choose a color for each section. Invite a student to activate the spinner and to name the product of the number spun times 6. (For example, if a 5 is spun, the student should answer "30.") Repeat for 7 as a factor.

### Reference

Burton, Grace M., and J. Dan Knifong. “Learning the Facts: It Need Not Be Frustrating.” The Elementary School Journal, 83 (2): 149-54.

- Paper and Pencil
- Computers or tablets with internet access

**Assessment Option**

Students should be given their My Multiplication Chart Activity Sheets from the previous lesson to add any additional multiplication facts they have mastered.

**Questions for Students**

1. What happens when one factor is 1? How can knowing this help you memorize the multiplication facts?

[When one factor is 1, the product is equal to the other factor.]

2. What will the product be when one factor is 0? How can knowing this help you memorize the multiplication facts?

[When one factor is 0, the product is always equal to 0.]

3. What is alike about 6 × 5 and 5 × 6? What is different?

[The product is 30 in each case; the factors of the product are in a different order.]

4. Write the numbers you say when you skip count by 6’s to 60. Which of these are even numbers?

[6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 42, 48, 54, 60. All of them are even.]

**Teacher Reflection**

- Which students have only a few multiplication facts mastered? What activities should I plan for them?
- What extension activities are appropriate for students who have mastered all or almost all of their multiplication facts?
- What adjustments will I make the next time I teach this lesson?

### Finding Products

### Learning Objectives

Students will:

- Create and solve multiplication stories.
- Practice selected multiplication facts.

### NCTM Standards and Expectations

- Understand the effects of multiplying and dividing whole numbers.

- Develop fluency with basic number combinations for multiplication and division and use these combinations to mentally compute related problems, such as 30x50.

- Select appropriate methods and tools for computing with whole numbers from among mental computation, estimation, calculators, and paper and pencil according to the context and nature of the computation and use the selected method or tools.

### Common Core State Standards – Mathematics

Grade 3, Algebraic Thinking

- CCSS.Math.Content.3.OA.A.3

Use multiplication and division within 100 to solve word problems in situations involving equal groups, arrays, and measurement quantities, e.g., by using drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.

Grade 3, Algebraic Thinking

- CCSS.Math.Content.3.OA.B.5

Apply properties of operations as strategies to multiply and divide. Examples: If 6 x 4 = 24 is known, then 4 x 6 = 24 is also known. (Commutative property of multiplication.) 3 x 5 x 2 can be found by 3 x 5 = 15, then 15 x 2 = 30, or by 5 x 2 = 10, then 3 x 10 = 30. (Associative property of multiplication.) Knowing that 8 x 5 = 40 and 8 x 2 = 16, one can find 8 x 7 as 8 x (5 + 2) = (8 x 5) + (8 x 2) = 40 + 16 = 56. (Distributive property.)

Grade 3, Algebraic Thinking

- CCSS.Math.Content.3.OA.C.7

Fluently multiply and divide within 100, using strategies such as the relationship between multiplication and division (e.g., knowing that 8 x 5 = 40, one knows 40 ÷ 5 = 8) or properties of operations. By the end of Grade 3, know from memory all products of two one-digit numbers.

Grade 3, Algebraic Thinking

- CCSS.Math.Content.3.OA.D.8

Solve two-step word problems using the four operations. Represent these problems using equations with a letter standing for the unknown quantity. Assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies including rounding.

Grade 4, Algebraic Thinking

- CCSS.Math.Content.4.OA.A.2

Multiply or divide to solve word problems involving multiplicative comparison, e.g., by using drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem, distinguishing multiplicative comparison from additive comparison.

Grade 4, Algebraic Thinking

- CCSS.Math.Content.4.OA.A.3

Solve multistep word problems posed with whole numbers and having whole-number answers using the four operations, including problems in which remainders must be interpreted. Represent these problems using equations with a letter standing for the unknown quantity. Assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies including rounding.

Grade 4, Algebraic Thinking

- CCSS.Math.Content.4.OA.B.4

Find all factor pairs for a whole number in the range 1-100. Recognize that a whole number is a multiple of each of its factors. Determine whether a given whole number in the range 1-100 is a multiple of a given one-digit number. Determine whether a given whole number in the range 1-100 is prime or composite.

Grade 4, Algebraic Thinking

- CCSS.Math.Content.4.OA.A.1

Interpret a multiplication equation as a comparison, e.g., interpret 35 = 5 x 7 as a statement that 35 is 5 times as many as 7 and 7 times as many as 5. Represent verbal statements of multiplicative comparisons as multiplication equations.

### Common Core State Standards – Practice

- CCSS.Math.Practice.MP6

Attend to precision.