To assess prior knowledge, give each student a blank piece of paper. Display Numeral Cards from 0 to 10 in random order and ask the students to draw sets of objects that match the numeral displayed.
Observe and document the names of those students who consult
resources in the room that help them complete the task, as this might
demonstrate a lack of understanding.
Ask students to share their drawings with the class.
To begin the lesson, ask students if they have ever heard the
expression "High Five." Tell students that they will use a variation of
that greeting by making High Sixes, Sevens, Eights, Nines, and Tens.
To demonstrate its meaning, "High Ten" the student to your
right. Hold up both of your hands with fingers extended upward to that
student and say "High Ten." The student should touch the palm of your
hands with his or her palms.
Ask that child to name a "High" number from 5 to 10 and greet
the student next to him or her by extending the correct number of
fingers upward and touching palms. That student will name a number and
greet the next student, and so on around the circle.
Next, give students paper and crayons and have them work in
pairs to trace both hands with the fingers outstretched, then label the
Call on 11 volunteers and assign each a number between 0 and
10. Ask them to make a numeral card for their assigned number. Collect
and shuffle the numeral cards.
Next, put out connecting cubes, and then show the students a
numeral card. Say, "Put this many cubes, one per finger, on the tracing
you just made. Then make a tower with the cubes and lift it in the
Ask them how many stories are in the tower. Repeat with the other numeral cards 0 to 10, in random order.
When they can comfortably make towers for the given numbers,
show two numeral cards, for example, 6 and 10. Ask the students to make
two towers and compare them. Next, ask students to share their
comparisons with the class using descriptive vocabulary.
Comparisons might include:
10 is greater than 6
10 is 4 more than 6
6 is 4 less than 10
Ask students to look at a numeral card you have displayed. Review
with the students how to make the numeral. Turn your back to the class
so that you will be writing in the same orientation as the students.
Then trace the figure in the air with large strokes. Encourage the
students to do this with you.
You may find the Suggestions for Numeral Writing Teacher Resource Guide helpful for students who are having difficulty writing the numerals.
As a take-home record of this lesson, or as an entry in their
learning portfolio, have the students lay two towers on a piece of
paper, trace around each tower, and write the numerals for each under
them (as shown below). Encourage students to write a comparison of the
towers in words and/or symbols.
Give each student a copy of the Ten Frames activity sheet.
Ask students to model each number you show by placing one
counter per section in the Ten Frame, beginning at the smiley face and
moving in the direction the arrow is pointing until the top row is
Display a numeral card and observe the students as they place
the connecting cubes. Ask them to remove the cubes before they model
the next number.
The ten frame uses the concept of benchmark numbers (5 and 10)
and helps students develop visual images for each number. For example,
this device makes it easy to see that 6 is 1 more than 5 and that 6 is
4 less than 10.
You may wish them to write each number as they model it in the ten frame.
Students may also use the Ten Frame tool to explore numbers up to 10.
Now distribute three craft sticks, white glue, and pinto beans
to each student. Have the students glue 10 beans on each stick, spacing
them equally in two groups of 5.
The inventor of bean sticks, Bob Wirtz, suggested this
placement so that students would be aware of the relationships of
numbers to the benchmark numbers 5 and 10. He used this same principle
when he invented the ten frame.
Ask students to make three sticks, each with 10 beans, and then
bring the sticks to you. As you receive each stick, ask the student to
check that the number of beans is correct, then have him or her lay
another layer of white glue across the beans. The glue will dry clear
and will make the bean sticks more durable. Put the bean sticks on a
table or a windowsill to dry and tell students they will use them in