assess students' prior knowledge, repeat the activity from the previous
lesson to determine what numbers (up to 13) students understand sufficiently. Ask them
to model the numbers using trains of 10 and ones.
Gather students together. Give them 20 connecting cubes, 10 of
two different colors in a resealable plastic bag. Ask students to
organize their cubes into one train of 10 and 10 cubes that are
separated, as shown below.
Display the numeral card 10, and ask each student to show you the number using his or her cubes.
Look for students who understand that 10 is a unit that can be
counted without separating the cubes that compose it. Make note of
students who have an emerging understanding of place value and those
who do not.
To begin the lesson, show the numeral cards 13 and 14 and ask
for a volunteer to say each number. Then choose one card, and tell the
students to clap their hands as many times as the number suggests,
counting aloud as they do so. Repeat with the other card.
Watch to see which students identify the numeral correctly and can clap the number of times the number suggests.
Give each student a large group of cubes in two colors. Ask them
to make towers of 13 and 14 using ten of one color in each tower. Have
them record the towers by tracing them on paper and labeling the
tracings. You may wish to have them color the towers to show "ten and
one more." Ask students to take these sheets home and tell their family
how they completed them.
Next, distribute the Ten Frames activity sheet.
Ten Frames Activity Sheet
Show the numeral card for 13 and ask them to put 13 cubes in the
frames, one cube per frame, filling the top frame first. Ask for
volunteers to explain how they did that.
Ask students to clear the frames. Show the numeral card for 14,
and ask them to put 14 cubes in the frames. Then ask them to change the
ten frames so that they are showing 13. Call on a volunteer to explain
the relationship between 14 and 13.
Place the students into pairs and ask them to change frames
again so that they are showing 14. Ask them to separate the group of 14
into two groups in as many ways as they can, and to record the size of
the smaller groups.
They may find this easier to do if they draw circles on paper and place the cubes within the circles.
Now ask the students to use bean sticks and loose beans to
represent 13 and 14. Ask them to make an entry for their portfolio by
drawing bean sticks for 10, 11, 12, 13, and 14 on a piece of paper.
Encourage them to label each model with a numeral.
They will add to this record during the next lessons, so that at the
end of the unit they will have a model for each number from 10 to 20.
Be sure to have the students write their names on the paper, and then
collect them for use in future lessons.
Burton, Grace M. Towards A Good Beginning: Teaching Early Childhood Mathematics. Menlo Park, CA: Addison-Wesley, 1985.