assess prior knowledge, ask the students wearing sneakers to stand and
form a column in a free space within the room. Ask the students not
wearing sneakers to stand and form a column alongside the column of
students wearing sneakers. (If all students are wearing sneakers,
choose another classification system, such as glasses/no glasses.)
Explain to the students that they have just collected and displayed
data. Record the data on a line plot on the board. Have the students
return to their seats. Ask questions to focus the students' attention
on the information displayed on the line plot. This exercise will help
you determine the students' experiences and knowledge with regard to
collecting and recording data.
If it is possible, read the book Freckle Juice by Judy Blume
on the day of the lesson. If this book is not available, read or tell
another story about a child with freckles. Call the students together
and tell them that they are to select a partner and look at their
partner to determine if he or she has freckles. Ask the students to
describe where on the face freckles usually are found.
Draw on the board or chart paper a copy of the tally chart below.
Introduce the convention for grouping five tally marks for easier counting.
Invite the students, one at a time, to place a tally mark in the
correct row to describe their partner's face. When all the students
have recorded the data, call on a volunteer to count the number of
tallies in each row and record the number at the end of the row.
Give each student a self-stick note. Ask the students to draw
pictures of their faces, with freckles if they have them and without
freckles if they do not have them. Now explain that they will show the
data another way--using a pictograph rather than tally marks. (A
pictograph is a graph that uses pictures to show data.)
two lines on the board and tell the students that the top line will
show how many students in the room have freckles; label the far-left
column "Have Freckles." Then ask the students what the second line
should be labeled, and enter their suggestion in the far-left column in
the second line of the grid.
Do Not Have Freckles
When the students are ready, invite them to place their drawings on
the pictograph, being careful that each drawing abuts the one before
it. Now ask a student to count the number of faces in each row and to
write the total amount at the end of the line. Encourage the students
to formulate questions that can be answered by looking at the
Collecting and keeping student work samples will allow you to review
the students' growth over time, assess their understanding of
mathematical concepts, and address any areas of misconception or lack
of knowledge. Ask the students to attach their self-stick note to an
index card and to write on the card two sentences that describe this
lesson. This card might be a suitable first entry for a portfolio of
work completed and assessed during this unit of study. If it is
appropriate for their level, ask the students to include a subtraction
sentence that describes the comparison of the two categories,
"Freckles" and "No Freckles."