## High Temperature

- Lesson

In this lesson, students complete a chart by adding or subtracting from a given value, use graphs to compare two categories of information, and identify number patterns.

Display the following chart on the chalkboard or overhead:

Start | Finish |

Ask students, "How do you get from start to finish in each row?" Allow time for discussion. Students should see that you can simply add 13 to the start number to get to the finish number. (Alternatively, some students may say that you can subtract 13 from the finish number to get the start number.)

Next, display the following chart:

Start | Finish |

Ask students, "How do you get from start to finish in each row?" Allow time for discussion. Students should see that you can simply subtract 20 from the start number to get to the finish number. (Alternatively, students may say that you can add 20 to the finish number to get the start number.)

Distribute the High Temperature Activity Sheet to each student.

High Temperature Activity Sheet

Discuss the pattern on the Activity Sheet with the students. Demonstrate the rule using your city's 6:00 a.m. temperature as an example, and predict the high temperature for the day. (Before class begins, you may want to know this information. Alternatively, students can use computers to locate the information online.)

Give students time to individually complete the chart and graph. In pairs, discuss the completed chart and graph. Circulate through the classroom to verify the accuracy of the students' graphs.

**Reference**

Cook, Marcy. "IDEAS: Applications." The Arithmetic Teacher. Vol. 36, No. 8, April 1989, pp. 27-32.

**Assessment Option**

You may collect the activity sheets as a means of assessment. The answers to the activity sheet are:

Miami: 78, 96

Portland: 46, 64

Austin: 72, 90

Burlington: 37, 55

Pittsburgh: 61, 79

Anchorage: 21, 39

Seattle: 44, 62

Edmonton: 55, 73

Phoenix: 84, 102

**Extensions**

- Gather the high temperatures for ten major cities from the local newspaper. Figure the 6:00 a.m. temperature for those cities. List the cities in order from the lowest 6:00 a.m. temperature to the highest.
- Using this data, students can also use Microsoft Excel or other spreadsheet/graphing software to create a graph of this data, similar to what was done in class.

### Learning Objectives

Students will:

- Complete a chart by adding or subtracting from a given value.
- Use graphs to compare two categories of information.
- Identify number patterns.

### NCTM Standards and Expectations

- Collect data using observations, surveys, and experiments.

- Represent data using tables and graphs such as line plots, bar graphs, and line graphs.

### Common Core State Standards – Mathematics

Grade 3, Measurement & Data

- CCSS.Math.Content.3.MD.B.3

Draw a scaled picture graph and a scaled bar graph to represent a data set with several categories. Solve one- and two-step ''how many more'' and ''how many less'' problems using information presented in scaled bar graphs. For example, draw a bar graph in which each square in the bar graph might represent 5 pets.

Grade 4, Algebraic Thinking

- CCSS.Math.Content.4.OA.C.5

Generate a number or shape pattern that follows a given rule. Identify apparent features of the pattern that were not explicit in the rule itself. For example, given the rule ''Add 3'' and the starting number 1, generate terms in the resulting sequence and observe that the terms appear to alternate between odd and even numbers. Explain informally why the numbers will continue to alternate in this way.

### Common Core State Standards – Practice

- CCSS.Math.Practice.MP7

Look for and make use of structure.

- CCSS.Math.Practice.MP8

Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.