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### Helping Ladybug Hide with Arrows and Angles

Pre-K-2

In this lesson, students use an applet (technology tool) to hide a
ladybug under a leaf. This requires experimentation, planning, and
understanding of spatial relationships and visual memory. ### Handy Map

Pre-K-2

This lesson engages students in creating a map of their hands. It provides purpose for using directional or positional words with mapping. The teacher draws a map of his or her hands and begins mapping them using words the students suggest. This allows the teacher to assess positional concepts students currently know and to build on that knowledge. Students create a simple map.### Facing Up

Pre-K-2

In this lesson, students create a map of their face and practice locating different parts using the geometric and measurement concepts they have learned in previous lessons, including location, navigation, spatial relationships, and measurement with nonstandard units. Students reproduce their face and describe it to reinforce their knowledge and skills of measuring and mapping. Using these familiar territories connects mathematics with daily encounters.### Counting Back

Pre-K-2

Students count back to compare plates of fish-shaped crackers, and then they record the comparison in vertical and horizontal format. They apply their skills of reasoning and problem solving during this lesson in several ways. [Because students have associated the word "more" with addition, the comparative approach to subtraction is typically more challenging for the students to understand.]### How Many More?

Pre-K-2

Students write subtraction problems, model them with sets of fish-shaped crackers, and communicate their findings in words and pictures. They record differences in words and in symbols. The additive identity is reviewed in the context of comparing equal sets. ### Hopping Backward to Solve Problems

Pre-K-2

In this lesson, students determine differences using the number line to compare lengths. Because this meaning is based on linear measurement, it is a distinctly different representation from the meanings presented in Lessons One and Two. At the end of the lesson, the students use reasoning and problem solving to predict differences and to answer puzzles involving subtraction.### Balancing Equations

Pre-K-2

This lesson encourages the students to explore another meaning for operations of subtraction, the balance. This meaning leads naturally into recording with equations. The students will imitate the action of a pan balance and record the modeled subtraction facts in equation form. ### Fact Family Fun

Pre-K-2

In this lesson, the relation of addition to subtraction is explored with fish-shaped crackers. The students search for related addition and subtraction facts for a given number and also investigate fact families when one addend or the difference is 0.### Bar Graph Investigations

Pre-K-2

During this lesson, the students apply what they know about comparison subtraction by constructing bar graphs and using them to answer questions. They conduct a survey to gather data and then complete a bar graph. They also use the data to generate a bar graph using technology. ### Wrapping Up the Unit

Pre-K-2

During this final lesson in the unit, the students use the mathematical knowledge and skills developed in the previous lessons as they visit five stations to review comparative subtraction.