Cryptography is science that uses mathematics to encrypt and decrypt data. The most elementary idea in cryptology is the idea of a cryptosystem. This is a system in which information can be made unintelligible to all but the intended reader. The first component of a cryptosystem is the original set of information, called the plaintext. The next element of a cryptosystem is the algorithm, commonly known as the cipher. This is the process that makes the information unreadable to the average person. The next part of a cryptosystem is the information that has been altered, which we call the ciphertext. This is the information that is not recognizable, and therefore can be sent out over public channels without fear of anybody understanding it. Decoding a message is the reverse process of encoding.
One way to encode messages is to replace each character in the message with another character. Such an encoding rule is called a substitution cipher. The first substitution rule we introduce is a shift transformation. The first known shift transformation is attributed to Julius Caesar, and is now called the Caesar cipher. The cipher works in the following way. Each letter in the alphabet is replaced by another letter using a predefined rule which shifts the alphabet a uniform amount to the right.
A Caesar cipher can consist of any size of shift, as long as the sender and receiver agree on this size. Observe that there are 25 different shifts making this cipher easily broken; just try out all the different shift values until the ciphertext makes sense.
To decrease the likely hood of being broken a substitution cipher can include a stretch value which adds a value between each letter.
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